Effect of ethanol stem extract of homalium letestui on gentamicin-induced kidney Injury in rat

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gombe State University, Gombe State, Nigeria.

2 UNIVERSITY OF UYO, UYO, NIGERIA

3 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Abstract

Background and aims: The kidney is a very vital organ that is responsible for regular elimination of unwanted substances from the body. It is frequently exposed to conditions that expose it to damage. There are not enough drugs in the market to protect or treat the kidney against these deleterious conditions. Homalium letestui has been used in traditional medicine as an antidote. This study aims to investigate the nephroprotective activity of ethanol stem extract of Homalium lestetui against gentamicin-induced rat’s kidney injury.
Methods: Thirty-six (36) adult male albino rats were used for this study. Animals in group I served as the control with normal saline, group II received gentamicin (100 mg/kg), group III received Silymarin (100 mg/kg), while group IV, V and VI where administered 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg of ethanol stem extract of Homalium letestui along with gentamicin 100 mg/kg for 8 days. The nephroprotective effect of the extract was evaluated by the assay of kidney function parameters such as serum urea, creatinine, electrolytes (K+, Na+, Cl- and HCO-3) and histopathological examination of the kidney.
Results: Homalium letestui caused significant p≤ 0.05 dose-dependent reduction in the level of serum urea, creatinine, and electrolytes in rat’s kidney when compared to the control. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked the nephroprotective effect of the stem extract of H. letestui.
Conclusion: The result of the study suggests that the plant has kidney protective ability which supports its traditional use as an antidote

Keywords

Main Subjects


1.      Cotran RS, Kumar V, Fausto N, Nelson F, Robbins SL, Abbas, AK. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). St. Louis, M. O. Elsevier Saunders. 2005; p. 878.

2.      Glodny B, Unterholzner V and Taferner B. Normal Kidney Size and its Influencing Factors - a 64-slice MDCT study of Asymptomatic Patients. Biomedical Centre of Urology, 2009; 9, 19 - 25.

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8.      Okokon JE, Nwafor PA. Antiulcer and Anticonvulsant Activities of Croton zambesicus. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacological Sciences; 2015. 4, 384-390.

9.      Okokon JE, Ita B, Udokpoh AE. Antiplasmodial Activity of Homalium letestui. Phytotherapy Research, 2016; 20, 949–951.

10.  Okokon JE, Antia BS, Ita BN. Antidiabetic Effects of Homalium letestui (Flacourtiaceae) in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2007; 1, 134–138.

11.  Okokon JE, Okokon PJ, Dar Farooq A, Choudhary MI. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Homalium letestui. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2013; 1459-66.

12.  Okokon JE,  Davies K. Psychopharmacological Studies of Mammea africana Stem Bark   Extract. The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2014; 3, 204–213.

13.  Ita B, Ngochindo R. Fatty Acid Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Homalium letestui Stem. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2014; 8, 416-422.

14.  Li YH, Sun XP, Zhang YQ, Wang NS. The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol related to Its Anticoagulant Property. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2008; 36(4): 719-722.

15.  De Broe ME, Paulus GJ, Verpooten GA, Roels F, Buyssens N, Wedeen R, Tulkens, PM. Early Effects of Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Amikacin on the Human Kidney.  Journal of Physiological Pharmacology, 1984; 25, 643–652.

16.  Yanagidaa C, Itoak KI, Horiea T. Effect of Cimetidine on Gentamicin-Losartan Induced - Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Journals of Chemical and Biological interaction. 2004; 148(3):139-147.

17.  Laskshmi BVS, Sudhakar M. The Protective Effect of Taurine Against Gentamicin-Induced Acute Tubular Necrosis in Rats. Nephrology and Dialysis Transplant, 2010; 15, 1175-1182.

18.  Adeneye AA, Benebo AS. Protective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf and Seed Extract of Phyllanthus amarus on Gentamicin and Acetaminophen-induced Nephrotoxic Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2008; 118, 318–323.

19.  Okokon JE, Joseph OS, Emem EU. Nephroprotective activity of Homalium Letestui stem extract against paracetamol induced kidney injury.  Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine. 2016; 6, 38 - 43.

20.  Oyedapo OO. Biological activity of Phyllanthus armarus extract on Pragrow-Dawley rats. Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2001; 26:202–226.

21.  Sadique J, Al-Raqobah WA, Bugharith ME, El-Gindy AR. The Bioactivity of Certain Medicinal Plants on the Stabilization of RBC Membrane System. Fitoterapia. 1989; 60:525–532.

22.  Dorman HJ, Kosar M, Karlos K, Holm Y, Hittuner R. Antioxidant Properties and Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Menthaspecies, Hybrids, Varieties and Cultivars. Journal of Agriculture Food and Chemistry, 2003; 51, 4563–4569.


 

1.      Cotran RS, Kumar V, Fausto N, Nelson F, Robbins SL, Abbas, AK. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). St. Louis, M. O. Elsevier Saunders. 2005; p. 878.

2.      Glodny B, Unterholzner V and Taferner B. Normal Kidney Size and its Influencing Factors - a 64-slice MDCT study of Asymptomatic Patients. Biomedical Centre of Urology, 2009; 9, 19 - 25.

3.      Stephen JJ, Inderbir SG, Raymond R. Operative Urology at the Cleveland Clinic. Andrew C. Novick, Inderbir S. Gill, Eric A. Klein, Jonathan H. Ross (Eds.). Totowa, N. J. Humana Press, 2006; pp 501- 511.

4.      Kishore BK, Gejyo F, Arakawa, M. Malondialdehyde: a Putative Uremic Toxin. Journal of Medical Science, 1983; 11, 750–751.

5.      Bolza E, Keating WG. African Timbers: The Properties, Uses and Characteristics of 700 species. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. 1972; 710 pp.

6.      Bouquet A,  Debray M. Medicinal Plant of the Ivory Coast. Trav Doc Orstom, 1974; 32. Pp 441.

7.      Verger PF. Awon ewe Osanyin Yoruba. Medicinal Leaves, University of Ife. 1976; 3, (3): 1238-1241.

8.      Okokon JE, Nwafor PA. Antiulcer and Anticonvulsant Activities of Croton zambesicus. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacological Sciences; 2015. 4, 384-390.

9.      Okokon JE, Ita B, Udokpoh AE. Antiplasmodial Activity of Homalium letestui. Phytotherapy Research, 2016; 20, 949–951.

10.  Okokon JE, Antia BS, Ita BN. Antidiabetic Effects of Homalium letestui (Flacourtiaceae) in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2007; 1, 134–138.

11.  Okokon JE, Okokon PJ, Dar Farooq A, Choudhary MI. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Homalium letestui. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2013; 1459-66.

12.  Okokon JE,  Davies K. Psychopharmacological Studies of Mammea africana Stem Bark   Extract. The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2014; 3, 204–213.

13.  Ita B, Ngochindo R. Fatty Acid Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Homalium letestui Stem. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2014; 8, 416-422.

14.  Li YH, Sun XP, Zhang YQ, Wang NS. The Antithrombotic Effect of Borneol related to Its Anticoagulant Property. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2008; 36(4): 719-722.

15.  De Broe ME, Paulus GJ, Verpooten GA, Roels F, Buyssens N, Wedeen R, Tulkens, PM. Early Effects of Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Amikacin on the Human Kidney.  Journal of Physiological Pharmacology, 1984; 25, 643–652.

16.  Yanagidaa C, Itoak KI, Horiea T. Effect of Cimetidine on Gentamicin-Losartan Induced - Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Journals of Chemical and Biological interaction. 2004; 148(3):139-147.

17.  Laskshmi BVS, Sudhakar M. The Protective Effect of Taurine Against Gentamicin-Induced Acute Tubular Necrosis in Rats. Nephrology and Dialysis Transplant, 2010; 15, 1175-1182.

18.  Adeneye AA, Benebo AS. Protective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf and Seed Extract of Phyllanthus amarus on Gentamicin and Acetaminophen-induced Nephrotoxic Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2008; 118, 318–323.

19.  Okokon JE, Joseph OS, Emem EU. Nephroprotective activity of Homalium Letestui stem extract against paracetamol induced kidney injury.  Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine. 2016; 6, 38 - 43.

20.  Oyedapo OO. Biological activity of Phyllanthus armarus extract on Pragrow-Dawley rats. Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2001; 26:202–226.

21.  Sadique J, Al-Raqobah WA, Bugharith ME, El-Gindy AR. The Bioactivity of Certain Medicinal Plants on the Stabilization of RBC Membrane System. Fitoterapia. 1989; 60:525–532.

Dorman HJ, Kosar M, Karlos K, Holm Y, Hittuner R. Antioxidant Properties and Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Menthaspecies, Hybrids, Varieties and Cultivars. Journal of Agriculture Food and Chemistry, 2003; 51, 4563–4569