Investigating the antimicrobial effects of Withania somnifera methanol extract prepared by ultrasonic waves on omit Klebsiella pneumonia

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Food Industry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran

2 Department of Biology, Higher Educational institute of Saravan, Saravan, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Payame Noor University, Zabol, Iran

4 Department of Biology- Faculty of Scienc- Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman- Kerman- Iran.


Background and aims: Herbal medicines has been a major remedy in traditional medical systems from thousands of years and made a great contribution in maintaining human health and in preventing many infectious diseases.
K. pneumonia is a bacterial negative intestinal bacillus and a member of Enterobacteriaceae family. This paper aims at investigating the antimicrobial effects of the methanol extract of wind cheese prepared by ultrasonic waves on the K. pneumonia
Methods: All 12 isolates of K. pneumoniae isolated from urine culture of hospitalized patients (Amir al-Mu'minin Hospital, Zabol, southeastern of Iran) suffered from urinary tract infection during the years 2013 and 2014. In this study, the extract of W. somnifera obtained by ultrasonic waves. Then the minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentration were investigated to characterize the antibacterial activities of this extract
Result: The result showing that plant extracts from W. somnifera had inhibitory effect against K. pneumoniae. The MIC values were also determined against all the tested bacteria. The highest MIC values of extract were found to be 5mg/ml against K. pneumoniae and four of MIC value for K. pneumoniae was 2.5 mg/ml. (p<0.005).
Conclusion: The obtained results showed that extraction by using ultrasonic method improved the efficiency and amount of the antimicrobial effects of the plant. So, ultrasonic waves can be used as a stimulus for increasing the antimicrobial effects of the plant.


Main Subjects

1. Varaldo PE,  Biavasco F,  Mannelli S, Pompei  R,   Proietti A. Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of extraintestinal clinical isolates of Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Serratia species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988; 4: 495–500
2. Bagley ST. Habitat association of Klebsiella species. Infect Control .1985;  6: 52–58.
3. Podschun  R , Ullmann U.  Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: Epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;  11: 589–603.
4.Chen LF, Chopra T , Kaye KS. Pathogens resistant to antibacterial agenst . Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009; 23(4): 817-845.
5. Gootz TD. The global problem of antibiotic resistance. Crit Rev Immunol. 2010; 30(1): 79-93.
6. Luquede Castro MD , Garcia- Ayuso LE. Soxhlet extraction of solid materials An outdated technique with a promising innovative future. AnalyticaChimicaActa. 1988;  369: 1-10.
7. Zolfaghari B , Yekdane A. Recent developments in extraction methods of plant materials. Herbal Plan Quarter. 2010;  1, 51-55.
8. Luque-Garcia JL , Luque de Caster MD.Ultrasound : A Powerful tool for leaching. Tre in Analyt chem. 2003; 22: 41-47.
9.Vinatoru M. An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive princilpes from herbs. Ultra chem. 2001;  8(3): 303-313.
10. Bokaeian M,  Fakheri BA,  Mahdi Nejad N , Zarei H,  Saeidi S ,Mohasseli T. The Effect of Withaniasomnifera Extract on Drug Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli. Int J Infect. 2015 ; 2(2): e23036
11.Bokaeian  M, Saeidi  S,  Shahi  Z, Sahraei  S,  Zarei  H , SohilBaigi G. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Withaniasomnifera Leaf Extracts against Antibiotic-Resistant Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Int J Infect. 2014 ; 1(2): e21085
12. Singariya P, Kuma P , Mourya KK. Evolution of Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf extracts of Winter Cheery(Withaniasomnifera). Inter J of PharmTech Res.2012; 4(3): 1247-1253.
13. Javadian F, Nasiri AA, Arefnejad M, Kiani Z, Sargazi A, Sepehri Z , Arefi M. Investigating the antimicrobial effects of the wind cheese leaf essence on samples of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and AcintobacterBumaniresistant to different antibiotics. Zabol Med Sci J.  2015; 7(4).
14.Bansod S , Rai M.  Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Indian Medicinal Plants Against Human Pathogenic Aspergillusfumigatus and A. niger .World J of Med Sci. 2008; 3 (2): 81-88.
15.Bisht P ,Rawat V.Antibacterial activity of Withaniasomnifera against Gram-positive isolates from pus samples.Ayu. 2014;35(3):330-2.
16.Zaynab M , Fatemeh B. Evolution of Antimicrobial activity of Witjaniasomnifera aqueous extract against human pathogens. Indian J of Fund and Appli Life Sci. 2014 ; 4(4): 2969-2973
17. G. Mwitari P,  A. Ayeka P,  Ondicho J, N. Matu E , C. Bii C. Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withaniasomnifera, Warbugiaugandensis, Prunusafricana and Plectrunthusbarbatus. Published. 2013; 13.
18. MehrotraV ,Mehrotra S , Kirar V , Shyam R , Misra K , Kumar Srivastava A , Paul Nandi S. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aqueous extract of Withaniasomnifera against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Micro Biot Res. 2011, 1 (1): 40-45
19.  de Lima Silva L, GieselHeldwein C, Brenner Reetz LG,Hörner R, de MoraesFábio DP, Duarte A,  de Moraes Flores EM, Zanella R, Soares Pereira  AM , Heinzmann BM.  Influence of extraction method on antibacterial activity ofethanolic extracts of OcimumgratissimumL. J of Med plan res. 2015; 9(7): 199-206.
20. Liu H, Wang Q, Liu Y, Chen G , Cui J. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cichoriumintybus root extract using orthogonal matrix design.J Food Sci.2013 ;78(2):M258-63.
21. Thongson C, Davidson PM, Mahakarnchanakul W,  Weiss J. Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-assisted solvent-extracted spices. Lett Appl Micro. 2004;39(5):401-6.
22. KavithaR, Damodharan N, Deborah U ,Blessing Bukola O. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction and Antibacterial Activites ofProtein Recovred from White Button Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus) . Inter J of PharmTech Res. 2015; 8(5): 991-995.
23.  Thongson C,  Davidson PM, Mahakarnchanakul W,   Weiss J. Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-assisted solvent-extracted Spices. Lett in Appli Micro.2004; 39: 401–406
24. Aboshora W, Lianfu Z, Dahir M,  Qingran M, Qingrui S, Jing L, Qaid M Al N  , Ammar A. Effect of Extraction Method and Solvent Power on Polyphenol and Flavonoid Levels in HyphaeneThebaicaLMart (Arecaceae) (Doum) Fruit, and its Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities. Tro J of Pharmal Res. 2014; 13(12): 2057-2063