The effect of 10-week aerobic training with and without ginger supplementation on aerobic power, BFP, and insulin resistance in obese middle-aged women with type 2 diabetes

Document Type: Original Article


1 Master of Science in exercise physiology, University of Shahrekord, Iran;

2 Asistant professor in exercise physiology, University of Shahrekord, Iran

3 PhD student of Science in exercise physiology, University of Shahrekord, Iran


Background and aims: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with diseases. The use of supplements, herbal extracts, and exercise training for the treatment of diseases and metabolic disorders has increased among people. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week aerobic training with and without ginger supplementation on aerobic power, BFP, and insulin resistance in obese middle-aged women with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: In this study, 46 obese diabetic women (BMI > 30, blood fasting sugar more than 150-250 mg/dL, 45-60 years old) were selected and randomly assigned into four groups, ginger (n=12), aerobic exercise training + ginger (n=12), aerobic exercise training (n=12) and control (n=10). Participants in supplementary groups received four 250 mg capsules ginger extract 1000 mg daily for 10 weeks. Aerobic training program included 10 weeks of training, 3 sessions per week and each session was 60 minutes at 55% maximum heart rate during the first week and gradually increased with the progress of the training program to 75 percent of maximum heart rate.
Results: After 10 weeks, significant difference was observed in weight, BMI, body composition, VO2max, Insulin, fasting glucose and insulin resistance (P<0.05). In the within group changes was observed significant decrease in insulin levels and insulin resistance was in the aerobic exercise training + ginger group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: According to obtained results, it appears that aerobic training plus ginger extract consumption have better effect on insulin levels and insulin resistance in obese middle-aged women with type 2 diabetes.


Main Subjects

1. Javanbakht M, Baradaran HR, Mashayekhi A, Haghdoost AA, Khamseh ME, Kharazmi E, et al. Cost-of-illness analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iran. PloS one. 2011; 6(10): e26864.

2. Van Guilder GP, Hoetzer GL, Greiner JJ, Stauffer BL, Desouza CA. Influence of metabolic syndrome on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in obese adults. Obesity. 2006; 14(12): 2127-31.

3. Arablou T, Aryaeian N, Valizadeh M, Hosseini A, Djalali M. The effect of ginger consumption on some cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Razi J Med Sci. 2014; 21(118): 1-12.

4. Shanmugam KR, Mallikarjuna K, Kesireddy N, Sathyavelu Reddy K. Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 49(4): 893-7.

5. Atashak S, Peeri M, Jafari A. Effects of 10 week resistance training and ginger consumption on C-reactive protein and some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010; 14(3): 318-28.

6. Hejazi SM, Soltani M, Aziz ZMA. Investigating the effect of selected aerobic exercises on the aerobic power and some blood physiological factors among middle-aged males with diabetes type ii. 2010.

7. Trovati M, Carta Q, Cavalot F, Vitali S, Banaudi C, Lucchina PG, et al. Influence of physical training on blood glucose control, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1984; 7(5): 416-20.

8. Matsuda A, Wang Z, Takahashi S, Tokuda T, Miura N, Hasegawa J. Upregulation of mRNA of retinoid binding protein and fatty acid binding protein by cholesterol enriched-diet and effect of ginger on lipid metabolism. Life Sci. 2009; 84(25-26): 903-7.

9. Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Talaei B, Jalali BA, Najarzadeh A, Mozayan MR. The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2014; 22(1): 9-16.


10. Atashak S, Azarbayjani M, Piri M, Jafari A. Effects of combination of 
long-term ginger consumption and resistance training on lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance in obese men. J Med Plants. 2012; 2(42): 179-88.

11. Peters EM, Smith M, Docrat A, Nadar A, Chetty K, Passmore J-AS. The Effects Of A Natural Anti-inflammatory Product On Systemic Markers Of Inflammation Following Downhill Running: 2236: Board# 124 May 28 3: 30 PM-5: 00 PM. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41(5): 278.

12. Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Nijs IM, Vogels N, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during weight loss in overweight females. Br J Nutr. 2005; 94(6): 1026-34.

13. Banitalebi E, Razavi T, Norian M, Bagheri L. The effect of combined aerobic exercise training and green tea extract on serum tnf-α and il-6 levels in obese women with type 2 diabetes. 2016.

14. Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: Insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985; 28(7): 412-9.

15. Black C, O’Connor P. (197) Short term effects of 2-grams of dietary ginger on muscle pain, inflammation and disability induced by eccentric exercise. J Pain Manag Med. 2008; 9(4): 25.

16. Tripathi S, Maier KG, Bruch D, Kittur DS. Effect of 6-gingerol on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and costimulatory molecule expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Surg Res. 2007; 138(2): 

17. Totsch SK, Waite ME, Sorge RE. Chapter Fifteen-Dietary Influence on Pain via the Immune System. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015; 131: 435-69.

18. Wang S, Zhang C, Yang G, Yang Y. Biological properties of 6-gingerol: A brief review. Nat Prod Commun. 2014; 9(7): 

19. van Breemen RB, Tao Y, Li W. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in ginger (Zingiber officinale). Fitoterapia. 2011; 82(1): 38-43.

20. Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 127(2): 515-20.

21. Mahluji S, Attari VE, Mobasseri M, Payahoo L, Ostadrahimi A, Golzari SE. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013; 64(6): 682-6.

22. Verma S, Singh M, Jain P, Bordia A. Protective effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. 2004.

23. ElRokh el SM, Yassin NA, El-Shenawy SM, Ibrahim BM. Antihypercholesterolaemic effect of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) in rats. Inflammopharmacology. 2010; 18(6): 309-15.

24. Shirdel Z, Mirbalad Zade R, Madani H. Effect of antidiabetic and anti lipidemic of ginger in diabetic rats for aloxan mono hidrate and compare with gliben clamid. Iran J Diabetes lipid Disorders. 2009; 9(1): 7-15.

25. Singh AB, Singh N, Maurya R, Srivastava AK. Anti-hyperglycaemic, lipid lowering and anti-oxidant properties of [6]-gingerol in db/db mice. Int J Med Med Sci. 2009; 1(12): 536-44.

26. Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, Pouramir M, Jalali F, Moghadamnia AA. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. 2008; 29(9): 1280-4.

27. Afshari AT, Shirpoor A, Farshid A, Saadatian R, Rasmi Y, Saboory E, et al. The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy, plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats. Food Chem. 2007; 101(1): 148-53.

28. Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, Nemmar A. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research. ‎Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(2): 409-20.

29. Colberg SR, Parson HK, Nunnold T, Herriott MT, Vinik AI. Effect of an 8-week resistance training program on cutaneous perfusion in type 2 diabetes. Microvasc Res. 2006; 71(2): 121-7.

30. Yousefipoor P, Tadibi V, Behpoor N, Parnow A, Delbari E, Rashidi S. The effect of 8-week aerobic and concurrent (aerobic-resistance) exercise training on serum il-6 levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. SSU J. 2013; 21(5): 619-31.

31. Hafez DA. Effect of extracts of ginger goots and cinnamon bark on fertility of male diabetic rats. J Am Sci. 2010; 6: 940-7.

32. Akhani S, Vishwakarma S, Goyal R. Antidiabetic Activity Of Zingiber Officinal Roscoe In Streptozotocin-Induced Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Rats. ‎Indian J Pharm Sci. 2005; 67(5): 553.