Preliminary phytochemical, pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of leaf of Gomphrena serrata

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Pharmacognosy, V. V. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gudlavalleru, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.


Background and aims: To analyze the pharmacognostic characteristics and physiochemical parameters of the leaves of Gomphrena serrata (G. serrata).
Methods: Microscopic characters and powder analysis had been carried out with the help of a microscope. The physiochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, extractive values and fluorescence of G. serrata had been performed.
Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, elliptical in shape, rounded or obtuse apex with an entire margin. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of epidermal cells with uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes and anomocytic stomata, followed by 1-2 layered collenchymatous cells and 10-15 numbered conjoint, collateral closed vascular bundles are some of the diagnostic characteristics observed from an anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, lignified xylem vessels, epidermis with anomocytic stomata and parenchyma cells. The investigations also included leaf surface data i.e., quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, extractive values and ash values were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, carbohydrates, glycosides, amino acids and proteins.
Conclusion: The morphological, microscopical and physicochemical parameter results provided in this paper may be utilized as a basis for the preparation of a monograph on G. serrata leaves. 


Main Subjects

1. Akbar S, Hanif U, Ali J, Ishtiaq S. Pharmacognostic studies of stem, roots and leaves of Malva parviflora L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4(5): 410-5.

2. Amponsah IK, Mensah AY, Otoo A, Mensah MLK, Jonathan J. Pharmacognostic standardisation of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4(12): 941-6.

3. Tarnam YA, Ilyas MM, Begum TN. Biological Potential and Phytopharmacological Screening of Gomphrena Species. Int J Pharm Res Rev. 2014; 3(1): 58-66.

4. Vieira C, Mercier H, Chu E, Figueiredo-Ribeiro R, Bajaj Y. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Biotecnol Agric Forest. 1994; 22(4): 28-9.

5. Pullaiah T, Naidu KC. Antidiabetic plants in India and herbal based antidiabetic research: Daya Books; 2006.

6. Rahman AM, Gulshana MIA. Taxonomy and medicinal uses on amaranthaceae family of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Appl Ecol Env Sci. 2014; 2(2): 54-9.

7. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology (5 Volume Set): CRC Press; 2012.

8. Pullaiah T. Flora of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India: Daya Books; 2000.

9. Dinda B, Ghosh B, Achari B, Arima S, Sato N, Harigaya Y. Chemical constituents of Gomphrena globosa. II. Nat Prod Sci. 2006; 12(2): 89-93.

10. Onocha P, Ajaiyeoban E, Dosumu O, Ekundayo O. Phytochemical screening and Biological activities of Gomphrena celosioides (C. Mart) Extracts. Nigerian Soc Exp Biol J. 2005; 5(2): 59-65.

11. Latha S, Rajendran N, Babu G. Anticancer screening of Gomphrena globosa against ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice. J Chem Pharm Res. 2013; 5(2): 283-9.

12. Botsaris AS. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007; 3(1): 18.

13. Oladele G, Abatan M, Olukunle J, Okediran B. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Gomphrena celosioides And Momordica charantia. Int J Series B. 2009; 8(2): 1-8.

14. Jhade D, Ahirwar D, Jain R, Sharma N, Gupta S. Pharmacognostic standardization, physico-and phytochemical evaluation of Amaranthus spinosus linn. Root J Young Pharm. 2011; 3(3): 221-5.

15. Ghorpade P, Siddiqui A, Patil MJ, 
Rub RA. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of Celosia argentea. Phcog J. 2012; 4(33): 7-15.

16. Anonomys. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.

17. Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy: Pragati Books Pvt. Ltd; 2008.

18. Harborne A. Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis: Springer science and business media; 1998.

19. Galani VJ, Patel BG. Psychotropic activity of Argyreia speciosa roots in experimental animals. Ayu. 2011; 32(3): 380.

20. Rakholiya K, Chanda S. Pharmacognostic, physicochemical and phytochemical investigation of Mangifera indica L. var Kesar leaf Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(2): S680-S4.

21. Dave R, Nagani K, Chanda S. Pharmacognostic studies and physicochemical properties of the Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula leaf. Phcog J. 2010; 2(13): 572-6.

22. Vaghasiya Y, Nair R, Chanda S. Antibacterial and preliminary phytochemical and physico-chemical analysis of Eucalyptus citriodora Hk leaf. Nat Prod Res. 2008; 22(9): 754-62.

23. Prasanth D, Rao AS, Yejella RP. Assessment of pharmacognostic, phytochemical and physicochemical standards of Aralia racemosa (L.) root. Ind J Pharm Edu Res. 2016; 50(3): S225-S30.