Withania somnifera and COVID-19: Current evidence and future prospective

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of cellular and molecular nutrition, faculty of nutritional sciences and dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Medical-Surgical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 MSc in geriatric nursing, Yazd reproductive science institute (YRSI), Yazd, Iran.

5 University of Jordan, Faculty of Medicine, Amman, Jordan


The most recent pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged the health systems around the world. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 and researchers are exploring herbal plant species. Withania Somnifera (WS) and its active ingredients may have potential benefits against COVID-19 activity and related cytokine storm. COVID-19 manifestations are not limited to the respiratory system and extend to vital body organs, a syndrome called multiple organ failure. WS also showed protective effects in different organs such as the lung, heart, liver, and kidneys. In this review, we aimed to summarize the pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms of WS against COVID-19 and related complications. WS showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antifibrotic, anticancer, and immunomodulatory effects, mainly by downregulating NF-κB and related pathways. The suggested clinical benefits of WS for COVID-19 were investigated by clarifying their underlying mechanisms in this review.