Document Type: Original Article
PO Box 67 Dschang
University of Dschang
University of Yaoundé I
Background: Sickle cell anaemia induces an abnormal haemoglobin (Hb S) synthesis. Hb S undergoes polymerization and causes the red blood cell (RBC) sickling with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present work aims to determine the antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of the combination of Theobroma cacao (T. cacao) extracts from different regions in Cameroon.
Methods: The extract combinations (Santchou and Obala (CSOH), Bertoua and Mbalmayo (CMBH)) was prepared using water/ethanol (30v/70v; pH=3). Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°) and 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzo-thiazolone-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS°) scavenging properties of extracts were determined for the antioxidant capacity. The liver homogenate protective activity of extracts was estimated by measuring Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Osmotic fragility reduction and anti-sickling properties of the combination were also investigated.
Results: CSOH and CMBH respectively revealed a high content of polyphenols (274.6±5.1 and 289±2 mg Eq of Quercetin/g of extract), flavonoids (3.8±0.1 and 4±0.2 mg Eq of cafeic acid/g of extract) and FRAP (119.83 MEAA/g of extract and 114.33 MEAA)/g of extracts). Extracts scavenged DPPH° and ABTS° radicals, respectively with IC50 values between 4.07 μg/mL and 13.15 μg/mL. CMBH showed the best anti-sickling reduction activity (54.56% and 70.07% after 2h30 and 24h respectively). The haemolysis percentage of erythrocytes decreased with an increase of the extract concentrations. Extracts combinations decreased and increased the MDA and GSH levels respectively as well as normalizing the enzymatic activities.
Conclusion: Cocoa extracts combinations especially CMBH are antioxidants and anti-sicklings.